According to the information provided by Chairman I of Osaka Diamond Industry Company, the consumption of superhard abrasive tools in the world market has reached 3.3 billion US dollars, of which the consumption of stone and construction industry accounts for nearly half of the total, reaching 49.4%; abrasive tools account for about 30%; composite polycrystalline tools account for 18.2%. Abrasives, CBN Abrasives account for 28% of the total abrasives. Compared with the world market, there are obvious differences in the proportion of domestic market division. First, the proportion of stone and construction tools in China is as high as 70%-80%, which is much higher than that in the international market. Second, the proportion of abrasives and CBN abrasives is low.
One of the reasons is that the proportion of high-grade diamonds is relatively high because there are few high-grade diamonds in China, so many stone tools can only be replaced by low-grade diamonds, resulting in low service life of saw blades and other tools; or in order to achieve a certain tool life and increase the concentration of diamonds, it is not the reason why China’s diamond construction industry is particularly developed. Secondly, because the abrasives used for processing cast iron and steel in our country are still ordinary abrasives, the amount of CBN abrasives is very limited, which can only be regarded as the initial stage at most. Therefore, this area has great potential for development.
What is the direction of new product development for superhard materials in the next few years? We should carefully investigate the following aspects, draw lessons from foreign use information, find out the domestic market demand, and formulate a practical development plan.
1 Automobile industry (including other power machinery, etc.)
For quite a long time to come, the automobile industry will always be the pillar industry of the national economy and achieve high-speed development. The development of automobile industry depends on the improvement of the level of processing technology of automobile equipment, especially the advanced level of NC machine tools (including cutting tools and abrasives). Efforts to develop advanced superhard cutting tools and abrasives, which are indispensable for automotive parts processing, are needed for the abrasive industry to adapt to the development of automotive industry and promote its own development.
In view of the current situation of China’s automobile industry and the mature experience of developed countries, we should mainly develop CBN grinding discs for piston ring processing, CBN grinding wheels for high precision and wear-resistant bearing processing (including resin-ceramic bonds), PCBN tool grinding tools and honing tools for various cast iron parts processing, and small hole grinding heads for various hydraulic parts processing. Diamond grinding wheels and drills for glass processing such as car window glass and automobile rearview mirror; diamond grinding wheels for processing other non-metallic materials such as plastics and rubber; CPD tools for processing aluminium alloy parts; diamond dressing rollers for various purposes, etc.
2 Processing of Hard and Brittle Nonmetallic Materials
This scope is very wide, we should still focus on the construction materials industry, road traffic facilities and other industries closely related to infrastructure construction. In terms of materials alone, the emphasis can be placed on the processing of wear-resistant floor tiles, glass-ceramics, etc.
In recent years, more than 100 advanced production lines (mainly from Italy, Germany and Japan) have been introduced into the wear-resistant floor tile industry in China. The matching flat grinding rolls, grinding wheels and chamfering grinding wheels of the grinding wheels need to be localized. According to statistics, only a coastal province has hundreds of floor tile manufacturers. In 1997, the imported processing wheel of floor tile was over 100 million yuan. There are thousands of floor tile enterprises in China. In 1995, the output of wall and floor tiles reached 90 million. The development trend of this industry is that glazed tiles are gradually replaced by wear-resistant floor tiles. As a result, the processing capacity of floor tiles is getting larger and larger, and the industry is of great use. Although in recent years many diamond products factories have developed grinding wheels for processing floor tiles, they are still not mature enough.
The glass industry should focus on the processing of flat glass for various purposes, because of its large volume and wide range, and focus on breaking through diamond grinding wheels for flat glass leveling, grinding, inverted bevel, arc polishing and other processes. In order to achieve the required processing efficiency and precision grinding wheel life on imported automatic production lines, it requires the industry to invest great enthusiasm and manpower. Only capital can make a difference. Lighting glass processing has also made great progress in recent years. The industry is uneven. There are not only very advanced automatic processing equipment, but also relatively backward manual grinding equipment. There are few pieces of glass to be processed for lamps and lanterns, and more than 10,000 pieces or even over 100,000 pieces. Therefore, different uses and different qualities should be developed to meet the needs of the market. Diamond processing tools of different quantities and prices.
Ceramic materials have developed rapidly, from the past mainly as living materials to industrial materials, tool materials and engineering materials. Diamond is indispensable to the processing of ceramic materials. Although the application of precision ceramics in China has just started, according to the development trend, it will be widely used in the 21st century and become an important member of the new material industry. Therefore, based on the processing experience of life ceramics and electronic ceramics, efforts should be made to develop new diamond processing tools to solve the problem of precision ceramics processing.
3 Wood and Plastic Products Processing
Wood processing and furniture industry has largely used automated machine tools to replace traditional manual operation. In addition, wood processing produces waste materials such as sawdust, shavings, short timber, and some branches and miscellaneous trees pruned from forestry resources. After crushing and processing, plastic binders are added, and a series of treatments are carried out to make “regeneration”. This material is more difficult to process than logs.
So there are two major demands:
First, automatic processing of wood and plastic products requires the use of many types of carbide or high-speed steel cutting tools. Because of the poor thermal conductivity of wood and plastics, the cutting tools under high-speed machining are easily blunt or deformed, so the replacement or grinding of cutting tools become frequent. For this reason, CBN series grinding wheels for cutting tools for woodworking plastics are produced. The diamond grinding wheels used for woodworking tools grinding have 97 shapes and 173 specifications (including size and size), and the plastic products grinding wheels have 20 shapes and 28 specifications. Many advanced production lines have been introduced or imitated in the domestic wood and plastics industry. Tool manufacturers have put forward many orders for grinding wheels.
Secondly, diamond or CBN composite polycrystalline tools for woodworking, plastics industry have also been put on the agenda, especially PCD tools for wood floor strip processing. There are considerable amounts of PCD tools in China (mainly in Yunnan, Sichuan and Northeast China). Therefore, it is urgent to develop PCD tools for forest products processing.
4 Application and Development of Various Polycrystalline Products
According to the data provided by GE in 1994, the annual consumption of PCD, PCBN cutting tools, PCD wire drawing dies and PCD mining drilling tools in the world market of superhard abrasive products reached 603 million US dollars in 1993, accounting for 18.2% of the total product consumption, sufficiently illustrating its large market capacity and broad prospects for development. In recent years, domestic PCD and PCBN products have made great progress, but their market share is still very small. The main reasons are: single variety, difficult to adapt to the changing market demand; domestic equipment can not adapt to the use of such tools; lack of communication and cooperation between the supply and demand sides, lagging understanding level; composite polycrystalline tool processing, special grinding processing still exist. Define the problem.
For example, PCD/PCBN turning tools for processing various materials can be developed first, because the shape of the turning tools is relatively simple, while domestic lathes (including CNC lathes for general lathes) are basically suitable for PCD/PCBN turning tools, and the main objects of processing are cast iron, hardened steel, aluminium alloy, carbon fibers, etc. Material, processing is not very difficult, processing effect is very significant, so it is easy for users to accept. Mining and oil and gas drilling tools require PCD to be of high quality, difficult to manufacture, high technology content, high price level and belong to high-tech products. Therefore, it is necessary to work hard at the level of PCD manufacturing quality, once the quality breaks through, tools can be put into development.
In the 20th century, China’s super-hard abrasive industry grew from scratch and from small to large. It has made remarkable achievements and made contributions to China’s economic development and scientific and technological progress. In the 21st century, we should be more confident, seize the opportunity, grasp the direction, and strive to develop the industry from big to strong, so that our country can truly become a big producer and exporter of super-hard abrasive products, and create brilliant achievements for world economic development, scientific and technological progress.